Hemp Basics

Hemp has been gaining tremendous popularity in recent years, both in scientific and consumer circles. For many, Hemp has become part of their daily routine, but what is Hemp and how does it work? The purpose of the following information is to further educate you on this naturally occurring chemical compound and provide guidance when choosing Hemp products.

What Is Hemp?

Hemp is one of the many (over 100 identified) cannabinoids found in the flowers, leaves and stems of the cannabis plant. Also known as Phyto cannabinoids, these cannabinoids are a group of naturally occurring chemicals that act on specific receptors found in the endocannabinoid system or ECS. The ECS is a recently discovered, specialized biological system that has been found in most animal species, including all vertebrates and some invertebrates and plays an invaluable role in promoting homeostasis, or inner balance. Hemp does not cause the intoxicating effects that are associated with another common cannabinoid, THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol).

Other important cannabinoids include CBG (Cannabigerol), CBC (Cannabichromene), and CBN (Cannabinol). These are just a few examples of the cannabinoids that the scientific community has identified. There may be more cannabinoids that have yet to be discovered.

How Does Hemp Work?

As mentioned above, Hemp works on specific receptors (cannabinoid receptors) in the biological system known as the endocannabinoid system or ECS. Most animal species, including many invertebrates, have some form of an ECS. In our explanation, we will limit our discussion to the human ECS.

Only recently discovered, the endocannabinoid system is considered one of the most significant biological systems in the human body. Labeled as one of the most important discoveries of the late 20th century, scientists are still working to obtain a better understanding of how the ECS works. The ECS is a complex system composed of neurotransmitters known as endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors, transport proteins and receptor enzymes. Thought to play a major role in physiologic and cognitive functions, the ECS has been described as “a bridge between the body and the mind.”

Some of these functions may include:

Hemp is found in many but not all parts of the cannabis plant. It is found primarily in the flowers and to a lesser extent, the leaves and stalks. These plant structures are known as the aerial parts of the plant. The roots and seeds do not contain significant amounts of Hemp, which makes it important for consumers to make sure of the hemp content within products they consume.

Certain savvy marketers sell hemp oil or hemp seed oil under the pretense that these products contain Hemp, when in fact they are derived from the parts of the cannabis plant that contain little to none, including the roots and the seeds.   

Hemp is not new to the United States of America. Several founding fathers, including George Washington, were hemp farmers. Later on in 1970, hemp was outlawed due to its association with marijuana and THC.

However, after the realization that hemp has many industrial benefits, and contains very little intoxicating THC, within the Agricultural Act of 2014, hemp was defined as varieties of Cannabis sativa and any part of such plant that contains 0.3% or less THC on a dry weight basis.

This created a broad legal definition of hemp resulting in the most important distinction between hemp and marijuana. The other defining characteristics associated with plant appearance have been blurred by artificial selection, making it difficult to differentiate the varieties by appearance alone. These days, marijuana and hemp can look remarkably similar.

For the remainder of this introduction, we will use “high-THC cannabis” when referring to marijuana.

It is believed that cannabis originated in central and southeast Asia thousands of years ago as the oldest know fiber cultivation crop. The first known record of cannabis being used was in China dating back to 4000 BC. It was not introduced to the New World until the mid-1500s.

Cannabis did not make its way to North America until the early 1600s, when industrial hemp quickly became identified as a valuable crop. So much so, that in the 1700s, the federal government required hemp to be grown by American farmers.

In 1854, the U.S. Pharmacopeia recommended medicinal cannabis for treating many ailments. Cannabis was widely used medicinally and for industrial purposes until the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, imposing taxes on the sale of all derivatives of the plant. Although still considered legal, this tax led to an overall decline in industrial hemp cultivation. Driven by decades of the criminalization and demonization of high-THC cannabis, hemp became illegal in 1970, when the Controlled Substances Act classified all forms of cannabis, including industrial hemp, as an illegal Schedule I controlled drug.

However, this did not stop the scientific community from continuing to look to cannabis as a potential source for treating disease. Soon after cannabis was made illegal by the federal government in the U.S, a Brazilian scientist named Elisaldo Carlini began to conduct the first known studies looking specifically at hemp and its beneficial effects in humans. This ultimately led to many people seeking out strains of cannabis that contained higher levels of Hemp. In 2009, with the advent of Project hemp by a group of journalists dedicated to Hemp and its potential therapeutic uses, hemp quickly gained the reputation as a potential alternative treatment modality for use in humans.

It wasn’t long before everyone wanted access to Hemp, still considered illegal by the Controlled Substance Act of 1970. Forty years would elapse before any change to hemp policy would be initiated by the federal government. This change was most likely driven by increased public interest in Hemp and in 2014, the Farm Bill was passed. This bill accomplished two things regarding these policies. It made the distinction between hemp and high-THC cannabis by defining hemp as containing 0.3% or less of THC. The bill also allowed for individual states to implement laws for research institutions and state agricultural agents to legally cultivate hemp in pilot agricultural programs.

Hemp was made legal by the 2018 Farm Bill Amendment, when hemp (containing 0.3% or less THC), along with any of its derivatives, was removed from the Controlled Substances Act. Much is still unclear and open for interpretation regarding hemp and hemp derived products. However, the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill helped spark further interest in hemp’s potential uses and products, especially Hemp oil.

Route of administration means the way in which a substance or drug is taken into the body.  These routes include inhalation, oral, sublingual/transmucosal, and topical routes, just to name a few.

Inhalation:  The advantage of inhaling a substance is that it has the shortest time to take effect, usually seconds to minutes.  However, as we all know, smoking and vaping can be harmful to the lungs.  In a society that is becoming more health-conscious, inhalation is not considered an ideal way to consume Hemp.

Oral:  The oral route is one of the most common ways to introduce drugs or substances into our bodies.  The disadvantage of consuming Hemp by mouth is related to what is known as the first-pass effect, also known as first-pass metabolism.  First-pass metabolism refers to how both the digestive tract and the liver can reduce the bioavailability, or systemic absorption, of a substance.

Sublingual/transmucosal:  One way to escape the first-pass effect is to place an oral Hemp product underneath the tongue or inside the cheek, for sublingual or transmucosal absorption.  This allows Hemp to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream.  However, to be effective, the product must be in contact with the tissue for a specific amount of time.

Topical:  Another route of administration that is not affected by first-pass metabolism are topical preparations.  However, absorption is limited by the protective characteristics of the largest organ in the body, the skin.

Recent improvements in different drug delivery systems, including liposomal and nanoparticle technologies, have proven effective in increasing the bioavailability of many drugs.  Both technologies essentially make it easier for Hemp to be absorbed by the body no matter how it is used.  These advancements can also improve how long Hemp will continue to work once it is absorbed.

Hemp can be found in many different preparations from oral tinctures to topical lotions.  Your individual needs will influence which preparations you feel are best suited for you.  Research has shown that oral and transmucosal preparations have a much higher effect on the body compared to topical products.   However, topical Hemp products may provide benefits as well.

Two important factors to consider when choosing a Hemp product are the ingredients and the product’s formulation.  We have recently discovered that while some Hemp products claim to contain Hemp , there is in fact little to no Hemp present.  In actuality, only a very small percentage of over-the-counter hemp products contain the amount of Hemp that is on the label.   The quality of the Hemp can also vary.  Internationally sourced Hemp (sourced from outside the United States) can be less expensive but tends to be inferior in quality when compared to domestically sourced Hemp.

Product formulation refers to how the composition of a product will influence the delivery of an active ingredient, Hemp in this case, in a stable and usable form.

Hemp does not cause the intoxicating effects (“high”) associated with THC.  The reason being THC and Hemp act on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in completely different ways.

THC directly binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors and exhibits most of its intoxicating effects by binding directly to CB1 receptors found in the brain.  Hemp has a lower affinity for these receptors and is thought to work more indirectly by modifying the receptor’s binding ability for other cannabinoids and by influencing additional molecular pathways in the ECS.  Some of these pathways include:

  • Dopamine D2 receptor binding: Crucial in regulating behavior and cognition.
  • 5-ht1A Activation: Wide variety of potential benefits, including increased mental stability, fatigue reduction, and decreased pain perception.
  • Adenosine Enhancement: Important in reducing inflammation and potential for treating autoimmune disorders.
  • TRPV1 Activation: Role in regulation body temperature, pain and inflammation.
  • Glycine Receptor Potentiation: Discovered to play a major role in pain proprioception.

Based on how THC and Hemp act on the ECS explains why each cannabinoid has varied effects in the body.  Hemp affects the body without causing the intoxicating effects of THC due to its specific behavior in the endocannabinoid system.

Hemp affects the body through a complex biological system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS).  As previously discussed, most animal species, with exceptions including insects and protozoa, have some form of an ECS.  However, the composition and distribution of the ECS across these animal species can be quite different.  For example, dogs have a higher distribution of CB1 receptors in certain parts of the brain compared to humans.  As we discussed earlier, THC acts on CB1 receptors to produce the intoxicating effects seen with high THC cannabis.  The higher concentration of CB1 receptors in the canine brain explains why dogs appear to be more sensitive to these effects than humans.

Interspecies differences explain why cannabinoids can affect animals differently, but why can the effects of Hemp be so varied between individuals?  Not only can there be inherit differences between peoples’ endocannabinoid systems, but factors like genetics, gender, age and overall health can influence how one will be affected by Hemp.

Quality of Hemp, dosage and frequency can also contribute to how Hemp may affect certain individuals.  It is our recommendation to be familiar with what products you are using, and consistency is key.  In many cases, the full effects of Hemp are not felt for 4-6 weeks after starting.

Hemp is considered to be generally safe with few to no side effects, however, there is no published recommended dose for Hemp.  When consuming a new Hemp product, it is advised to start with a low dose and slowly increase to effect.  It is especially important to take note of any subtle changes you may experience during this process and some people may document these changes to help obtain the ideal dose.  It is important to remember what might work for some, may not work for others.  When in doubt, “start low and go slow”.

As with any dietary supplement, people who are pregnant, nursing, taking medication or have underlying health conditions should consult their physician prior to starting a Hemp regiment.

In short, yes and no.  With the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp (cannabis that contains 0.3% or less THC) along with its derivatives, was removed from the Controlled Substance Act, making it federally legal.  However, each individual state acts independently in how they regulate and handle hemp and Hemp.

For example, in Idaho, Hemp products are only legal if they contain zero concentration of THC.

To make matters more complicated, according to the FDA, it is currently illegal to market Hemp as a dietary supplement or food additive.  There is only one FDA-approved Hemp drug currently on the market.  This means that currently it is prohibited by the FDA to make claims regarding Hemp and its use in the treatment of specific conditions.  To maintain compliance with the FDA, we do not make such claims regarding our products.  We do acknowledge, based on research and clinical studies, Hemp’s tremendous potential.

The subject surrounding the legality of Hemp is confusing and ill-defined.  Although federally legal, there may be state-implemented restrictions regarding hemp and Hemp products.  Whenever in doubt, we recommend checking your individual state’s policies regarding Hemp.

One area of growing interest surrounding Hemp is its use in companion animals.  Research has revealed Hemp’s potential in humans, causing pet owners to wonder if Hemp might have the same effects on their furry family members.

As mentioned previously, most animals have an endocannabinoid system (ECS), which includes dogs, cats, horses, and birds.  Recent studies, particularly in dogs, have shown that Hemp may be effective in companion animals as well. More research is needed to explore the use of Hemp in pets, and scientists are just starting to fully understand its effects.

It is an understatement to say that Hemp has taken the world by storm.  Not only is the medical community looking into Hemp’s potential, but it has been popularized as the new “it” product by present culture.  From drink additives to face cream, the possibilities for Hemp use seem limitless.  On the other hand, the current landscape surrounding Hemp looks quite different from what activists and scientists expected.  The federal government’s vague stance on Hemp has created many problems that currently face the industry.  Presently, it is considered to be the “wild west” in terms of Hemp and Hemp products.

Although the future of Hemp may not be completely clear, one thing is for certain, Hemp is not going away anytime soon.  We are excited by Hemp’s tremendous potential and look forward to continuing our mission in providing the highest quality Hemp products.

Join the Royal Family

Sign up today to stay current with alerts for promotions, product launches, & CBD news.


The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is “widely distributed throughout the brain and modulates many functions. It is involved in mood and related disorders, and its activity may be modified by exogenous cannabinoids.” (1)

Mood is defined as the “pervasive feeling, tone, and internal emotional state of a person, when impaired, can markedly influence virtually all aspects of the person’s behavior of his or her perception of external events”. (2)

Mood disorders are the most diagnosed mental illnesses in the United States, affecting a reported 40 million adults. Frequently, these disorders are treated with psychiatric drugs. However, some of these drugs are addicting and may not work for everyone. In recent years, there has been increased interest in using CBD in the treatment of mood disorders.

CBD is a phytochemical compound found in many parts of the cannabis plant. Many people describe CBD as being non-psychoactive. This is technically incorrect. Studies have shown CBD may have mind altering effects and could provide a calming effect in the central nervous system. CBD does not, however, have the intoxicating effects that are seen with THC. Intoxication is when physical or mental control is greatly reduced by the effects of a drug or alcohol.

It remains unclear how CBD may work to help improve mood, but many theorize that it works by acting on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to regulate serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin not only regulates mood and social function but can aid in digestion and sleep patterns.

In 2014, CBD proved to have mood improvement effects in rodents. (3) There have been limited studies in people, but results have been promising. These studies suggest that CBD may rapidly decrease symptoms of anxiety and is better tolerated than prescription medication.

There is still much to be learned regarding CBD and its uses. Combined with healthy lifestyle practices, CBD may be an invaluable tool in combatting debilitating conditions that influence mood leading to an overall improvement in quality of life.


  1. Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders – PubMed (nih.gov)
  2. Mood | definition of mood by Medical dictionary (thefreedictionary.com)
  3. Involvement of serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter on cannabidiol chronic effects in panic-like responses in rats – PubMed (nih.gov)

CBD for Sleep

Many people find high-quality CBD may be helpful in the treatment of conditions that negatively affect sleep, including insomnia, restless leg syndrome, anxiety, and pain. Sleep disorders refer to changes in sleeping patterns or habits that negatively impact health. These disorders are surprisingly common, affecting 50-70 million adults in the United States and are a primary reason many seek medical attention.

Unfortunately, it is common practice by medical professionals to prescribe pharmaceutical sleep aids. These drugs can have negative side effects, including drowsiness, when taken regularly and can often lead to chemical dependency. The FDA has recently required new “boxed” warnings for these drugs to alert physicians and patients to potentially serious side effects. Studies have shown that people who use these hypnotic drugs are 4.6 times more likely to die than people who do not. (1)

Over-the-counter sleep aids can also have negative side effects and are not intended for long-term use. The drawbacks to over-the-counter sleep aids and prescription sleeping pills have led to an increased interest in more natural ways to obtain a healthy night’s sleep, including the use of CBD.

Studies suggest CBD may not only decrease anxiety and pain but may positively affect sleep and wake cycles. (2) In a 2014 study (3), it was suggested that CBD improved quality of sleep in patients with certain disease conditions. A 2019 study (4) using CBD as a potential treatment for anxiety, revealed that 66% of people using CBD reported better sleep.

Not only may CBD benefit those with sleep disorders but may also promote wakefulness in patients with conditions like narcolepsy. CBD is known to cause a biphasic effect in some people. This means CBD at lower doses can improve alertness and at higher doses, can cause sedation. (5)

It is still not completely understood how CBD works to affect sleep and wake cycles, but there is much evidence to suggest a strong relationship between the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) and circadian rhythms. CBD, in acting on the ECS, can promote both sleep and wakefulness.

In addition to making healthy lifestyle changes, CBD may prove to be a safer, more natural way to obtain a better night’s sleep. For some, it may also be useful in promoting daytime alertness and productivity.

  1. Sleeping pills ‘linked to increased death risk’ – BBC News
  2. Endocannabinoids and sleep – PubMed (nih.gov)
  3. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep‐related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder … – Chagas – 2014 – Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics – Wiley Online Library (https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12179)
  4. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series – The Permanente Journal – Kaiser Permanente
  5. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature (upenn.edu)


Memory is simply defined as an “important cognitive process that allows people to encode, store and retrieve information” (1).  Although it is still not completely understood how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a role, it seems to act as a moderator for how stress and the environment can affect our memory. (2)

As we age, many people will say that the first thing to decline is their memory.  Unfortunately, certain conditions like dementia can also affect older individuals, having catastrophic effects.

However, there may be hope yet.  Early studies have shown that CBD and other cannabinoids may be important in maintaining memory and potentially treating diseases that affect it.  One study suggested that “CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment … for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition”. (3)

It may also become powerful medicine to slow down disease progression.  Certain proteins found in braincells, including Beta amyloid (Aβ), increase with age and accelerate cell death.  In one study, cannabinoids were shown to be neuroprotective in that they can “stimulate the removal of intraneuronal Aβ” and block the inflammatory response. (4)

Although currently there is no cure for conditions that may affect memory, CBD may have the potential to decrease the severity of symptoms.  A reduction in these symptoms, including agitation, anxiety, and depression, may result in an improved quality of life for patients diagnosed with these debilitating diseases.


  1. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-cognition
  2. The endocannabinoid system: an emotional buffer in the modulation of memory function – PubMed (nih.gov)
  3. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits … PubMed (nih.gov)
  4. Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids | npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease (nature.com)


Scientific research has revealed that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a central role in both appetite and food intake and suggests that a better understanding could offer “new possibilities to optimize the balance between energy and nutrient intake for different target groups” (1).

Although THC use is more often associated with causing an increase in appetite, CBD may indirectly improve appetite by reducing nausea and vomiting.  The exact methodology is not completely understood, but scientist believe that CBD may activate receptors in the brain to regulate the release of 5-HT (serotonin) in the central nervous system, which in excess can cause nausea and vomiting. (2)

Studies have also shown that cannabinoids may work more effectively than other anti-nausea and anti-vomiting medications.  CBD’s potential to not only inhibit abnormal cell growth, but also address disease treatment side effects, makes for a winning combination.  This combination, as well as other potential therapeutic effects, may lead to CBD playing a fundamental part in obtaining a cure for many disease conditions.


  1. The endocannabinoid system and appetite: relevance for food reward – PubMed (nih.gov)
  2. Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids – PubMed (nih.gov)

Are you 21 or over?

By entering, you verify that you are 21 years of age or older and agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.